Pumps are the device that you can spot being used at home, offices, shopping complexes, and in Industries. Different types of pumps are available in the market and are widely used in industries. The selection of pumps is based on the use and the requirement as for every purpose, a type of pump is available and should be used accordingly. In the previous article, we had discussed Types of Distillation Today in this article, we are going to explore types of pumps, working principle of pumps. But prior to getting into the types of pumps, let us refresh with the definition of the pump.
What is a pump?
A pump is a mechanical device that converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy/fluid energy. Pump is used to transfer fluid from low-pressure levels to high-pressure levels. In other words, pumps are the device used to transfer fluid from one point to the desired point. Now as we had learned what is pump, let us move forward to the types of pumps.
Don’t forget to check detailed article on Types Of Chemical Reactors which will help you to learn about reactors in detail.
What are the Different Types of Pumps: Working and Their Applications
A pump produces liquid movement or flow: it does not generate pressure. It produces the flow necessary for the development of pressure which is a function of resistance to fluid flow in the system.
Classification of Pumps – Types of Industrial Pumps
There are mainly two types of pumps :
1. Dynamic Pump 2. Positive Displacement Pump
- Dynamic pump
- Centrifugal pump
- Vertical Centrifugal Pump
- Horizontal Centrifugal Pump
- Submersible Pump
- Fire Hydrant Pump
2. Positive Displacement Pump
- Diaphragm Pump
- Gear pump
- Piston Pump
- Lobe Pump
1. Dynamic Pumps
Dynamic pumps are further classified into different types of pumps and some of them are discussed viz. Centrifugal pump, Vertical centrifugal, Horizontal centrifugal, Submersible, and Fire hydrant systems.
1.1). Centrifugal Pumps
These types of pumps are the most commonly used pumps in Industries worldwide. These pumps generate high rotational velocities, converting the kinetic energy of liquid to pressure energy. Whenever the pump is in action, then the fluid pressure will increase from the inlet of the pump to its outlet. The change of pressure will drive the liquid throughout the system. It used where high flow rates and moderate head increase and required. It can handle liquid that contains suspended solids. On our blog, we had discussed what is the pump performance curve and how to read the pump curve.
1.2) Vertical Centrifugal Pumps
Vertical centrifugal pumps are also called as cantilever pumps. These pumps use an exclusive shaft & maintain a design that permits the volume to fall within the pit as the bearings are external to the pit. This mode of pump utilizes no filling container to cover the shaft however in its place uses a throttle bushing. A parts washer is the common application of this kind of pump.
1.3) Horizontal Centrifugal Pumps
These types of pumps include a minimum of two otherwise more impellers. These pumps are utilized in pumping services. Every stage is fundamentally a divide pump. All the phases are in a similar shelter & mounted on a similar shaft. On a solo horizontal shaft, a minimum of eight otherwise additional stages can be mounted. Every stage enhances the head by around an equal amount. Multi-stage pumps can also be single otherwise double suction on the first impeller. All kinds of pumps have been providing as well as servicing this type of centrifugal pumps.
1.4). Submersible Pumps
These pumps are also named stormwater, and sewage pumps. The applications of these pumps mainly include building services, domestic, industrial, commercial, rural, municipal, & rainwater recycle applications. These pumps are apt for shifting stormwater, subsoil water, sewage, black water, grey water, rainwater, trade waste, chemicals, bore water, and foodstuffs. The applications of these pipes mainly include in different impellers like closed, contra-block, vortex, multi-stage, single-channel, cutter, otherwise grinder pumps. For different applications, there is an extensive selection is accessible which includes high flow, low flow, low head, otherwise high head.
1.5). Fire Hydrant Systems
Fire hydrant pump systems are also known as fire pumps, & firewater pumps. These pumps are designed to serve water flow with high force and high pressure that can by use by the fireman for firefighting in case of fire in Industry. Pump pipings are connected with a water sump which is dedicated to fire incident only. It is not allowed to use this pump for another purpose. These pumps are also installed on the street to fight fire in the residential areas. Fire pump plays an important role in Industrial safety. You know that fire fighting at the fire initiation is very important which we had discussed in stages of fire.
Recommended – If you are interested in safety in chemical industry then you must read what is Fire triangle
2. Positive Displacement Pumps
Positive displacement pumps are classified into different types i.e reciprocating pump and rotary pump. These pumps are further classified and some of those are discussed herein details viz. the diaphragm, gear pump, peristaltic, lobe, and piston pumps.
2.1). Diaphragm Pumps
Diaphragm pumps, known as AOD pumps (Air operated diaphragms pumps), pneumatic, and AODD pumps. These pump works on pneumatic pressure and doesn’t require power and hence these are used especially where the power is not unavailable or can’t use such as the area where combustible material is present. These pumps utilized for transferring chemicals whose flashpoint is very high and high risk involved in using a power-driven pump, corrosive chemical, volatile solvents, etc. These pumps include two chambers with diaphragms which are driven with plant air (industrial term) condensed air. The air supply is shifted from one chamber to another with an air spool valve that is built into the pump. This constant shifting of air from chamber to another forces fluid from one to another chamber and into the discharge piping and counter, the other chamber is being charged with liquid.
I had worked in the pharmaceutical industry where we used to use these pumps to transfer methanol from HDPE drum to reactor.
2.2). Gear Pumps
These pumps are a kind of rotating positive dislocation pump, which means they force a stable amount of liquid for every revolution. In gear pump, gears are rotated by the motors which create void and suction which helps for the intake of fluid. Entered fulid gets energy by the groves of the gear which carries fuild to the discharge point. Rotation of gears prevents backflow of the fluid. Gear pumps are used to transfer thick liquids like fuel as well as grease oils and are not suitable for fluid contains solids.
2.3) Piston Pumps
Piston pumps are one kind type of positive displacement pumps wherever the piston is used to suck and discharge pressure. These pumps are use where high, reliable pressure is required. As you can see in the figure, the piston is used in this pump which oscillate by the moter. As the piston moves backward, void space is generated in the pump casing which will withdraw fluid into the pump because of vacuum. Non-return valve is installed in the pump suction so that fuild will not escape from suction valve. Now as pump pinston goes down, it will pressurise the chamber and fluid will be discharged from the discharge. Pump piston will continue its movement up and down and the pump will These are used in different kinds of buildings to make simpler the movement of liquid materials. The pumps which are used in housing & commercial can handle water. Fire pumps supply a rushed water supply for automatic sprinklers and firefighters, and booster pumps supply clean water to higher floors in apartments.
2.4. Lobe Pumps
Lobe pumps are similar to gear pumps in which lobes are used which rotates in the casing like gear pump in which gears are use. These lobes roatared adn create suction and fluid is intake. Fluid entered in the casing gets trapped because of lobes and as these lobes rotates, fulid is pusshed as transefer to the discharge point. Unlike gear pumps, lobes are not in physical contact which makes the more reliable and helps them to handle thich fluids and fulids containing solids. One thing to notice in love pumps is that Fluid is transfer by the passage around the casing and not between the lobes. The advantage of using lobe pumps is that it can transfer heavy fluids that contain solids also.
2.5. Screw Pumps
Screw pumps are the types of pump that consist of screws in it and they rotate to serve the purpose of pumping fluid. These pumps consist of two or three screws with opposite threads like if one screw in the pump is rotating in clockwise then another one will rotate in the anticlockwise direction. Screws mounted on parallel shafts that have gears that mesh so the shafts turn together and everything stays in place. The screws turn on the shafts and drive fluid through the pump. As with other forms of rotary pumps, the clearance between moving parts and the pump’s casing is minimal.
These were the article on the type of pumps and their application in which we had discussed what is a pump, the working principle of the pump, and the application of pump with pump images. If you had any confusion on this topic or have any suggestions then feel free to use the comment section. In Meantime, you can have a read article related to industrial safety like Types of Hazards in Chemical Industry and also chemical engineering related articles i.e. what is p&id diagram where we had covered helpful topics that will help you to have knowledge of safety in the industry.